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4 easy ways to resolve life's toughest questions
Think of this as a survival kit for the mind
 
Follow the methods of the master, Dwight D. Eisenhower.
Follow the methods of the master, Dwight D. Eisenhower. (Fox Photos/Getty Images)

How to work more efficiently

Use the Eisenhower Matrix.

The US President Dwight D. Eisenhower supposedly once said: 'The most urgent decisions are rarely the most important ones'. Eisenhower was considered a master of time management, i.e. he had the ability to do everything as and when it needed to be done. With the Eisenhower method, you will learn to distinguish between what is important and what is urgent.

Whatever the job that lands on your desk, begin by breaking it down according to the Eisenhower method (see model), and then decide how to proceed. We often focus too strongly on the 'urgent and important' field, on the things that have to be dealt with immediately. Ask yourself: When will I deal with the things that are important, but not urgent? When will I take the time to deal with important tasks before they become urgent? This is the field for strategic, long-term decisions. [The Decision Book: 50 Models for Strategic Thinking]

How to be happy

Try the "Flow" model:

After interviewing over a thousand people about what made them happy, (Csikszentmihalyi) found that all the responses had five things in common. Happiness, or 'flow', occurs when we are:

• intensely focused on an activity

• of our own choosing, that is

• neither under-challenging (boreout) nor over-challenging (burnout), that has

• a clear objective, and that receives

• immediate feedback.

Csikszentmihalyi discovered that people who are 'in the flow' not only feel a profound sense of satisfaction, they also lose track of time and forget themselves completely because they are so immersed in what they are doing. Musicians, athletes, actors, doctors and artists describe how they are happiest when they are absorbed in an often exhausting activity – totally contradicting the commonly held view that happiness has to do with relaxation. [The Decision Book: 50 Models for Strategic Thinking]

How to remember everything you have ever learned

Use the Super memo model:

Imagine that you are learning Chinese. You have learned a word and memorised it. Without practice, over time it will become increasingly difficult to remember. The amount of time it takes for you to forget it completely can be calculated, and ideally you should be reminded of the word precisely when you are in the process of forgetting it. The more often you are reminded of the word, the longer you will remember it for. This learning programme is called SuperMemo and was developed by the Polish researcher Piotr Wo┼║niak.

After learning something, you should ideally refresh your memory of it at the following intervals: one, ten, thirty and sixty days afterwards. [The Decision Book: 50 Models for Strategic Thinking]

How to deal with a dilemma

Use "The Rubber Band Model."

Is this a situation you are familiar with? A friend, colleague or client needs to make a decision that could irrevocably alter their future: for example to change career, move to another city or take early retirement. The arguments for and against are evenly balanced. How can you help them out of their dilemma?

Copy out the rubber band model, and ask the person to ask themselves: What is holding me? What is pulling me?

At first glance the method seems to be a simple variation of the conventional question "What are the pros and cons?" The difference is that 'What is holding me?' and 'What is pulling me?' are positive questions and reflect a situation with two attractive alternatives. [The Decision Book: 50 Models for Strategic Thinking]

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