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9 scientific experiments that used '90s TV shows to manipulate subjects
Power Rangers really can make you want to punch things
 
Got a subliminal message to send? Homer's your man.
Got a subliminal message to send? Homer's your man. (YouTube)

If you want to know something about what makes people tick, investigate it with something people love — TV!

1. WATCHING FOOD-RELATED TELEVISION INCREASES CALORIC INTAKE IN RESTRAINED EATERS

The scientists: Mitsuru Shimizu and Brian Wansink in Appetite 57.3, 2011

The show: SpongeBob SquarePants

The conditions: One group watched SpongeBob episodes that were food related (e.g., "Chocolate with Nuts"). The other group watched non-food related episodes (e.g., "Snowball Effect"). Both groups had access to a bowl of candy.

The result: "Restrained" eaters (those who were dieting) ate more while watching the food-related episodes, but type of show had no effect on "unrestrained" eaters.

The oversimplified takeaway: When SpongeBob gets hungry, there goes your diet.

2. MEN, MUSCLES, AND MACHISMO: THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TELEVISION VIOLENCE EXPOSURE AND AGGRESSION AND HOSTILITY IN THE PRESENCE OF HYPERMASCULINITY

The scientist: Erica Lee Scharrer in her dissertation; Syracuse University, 1998

The shows: Home Improvement and Miami Vice

The conditions: Groups watched a hypermasculine show with violence (Miami Vice) or without violence (Home Improvement).

The result: Those who watched the violent show reported more hostile/aggressive tendencies after watching. If they already scored high measures of "hypermasculinity," the effect was greater.

The oversimplified takeaway: Crockett and Tubbs can make Tim Taylor go Terminator.

3. SITUATION MODELS AND MEMORY: THE EFFECTS OF TEMPORAL AND CAUSAL INFORMATION ON RECALL SEQUENCE

The scientists: Aaron L. Brownstein and Stephen J. Read in Memory 15.7, 2007

The show: Cheers

The conditions: Subjects watched episode of Cheers and then had to recall it from memory.

The result: People remembered things according to cause and effect chains rather than temporal sequence.

The oversimplified takeaway: Which scene did they show first? Who knows. But Diane did this because Sam did that.

4. ONLINE COGNITIVE ENGAGEMENT OF BOYS WITH ADHD

The scientists: Kristin S. Whirley, et al. in Journal of Attention Disorders 7.2, 2003

The show: Growing Pains

The conditions: Two groups, one with ADHD and one without, watched Growing Pains while having to press a computer key in response to a sound cue.

The result: Reaction times showed the ADHD group got absorbed in important plot moments of the show later than the non-ADHD group.

The oversimplified takeaway: Growing Pains might take a little longer to suck you in if you've got ADHD.

5. SUBLIMINAL MOTIVATION: A STORY REVISITED

The scientists: Joel Cooper and Grant Cooper, Journal of Applied Social Psychology 32.11, 2002

The show: The Simpsons

The conditions: People watched an episode of The Simpsons with subliminal messages related to thirst embedded in it. The messages were verbal or pictorial.

The result: They got thirstier.

The oversimplified takeaway: Got a subliminal message to send? The Simpsons can deliver it.

6. EFFECTS OF THE MIGHTY MORPHIN POWER RANGERS ON CHILDREN'S AGGRESSION WITH PEERS

The scientists: Chris J. Boyatzis, Gina M. Matillo, and Kristen M. Nesbitt in Child Study Journal 25.1, 1995

The show: Mighty Morphin Power Rangers

The conditions: The experimental group of kids watched an episode, the control group did not.

The results: The kids who watched Power Rangers committed more aggressive acts during observation period.

The oversimplified takeaway: If you want to keep things calm, you probably don't want to "go, go Power Rangers."

7. EFFECTS OF REPEATED EXPOSURES TO A SINGLE EPISODE OF THE TELEVISION PROGRAM BLUE'S CLUES ON THE VIEWING BEHAVIORS AND COMPREHENSION OF PRESCHOOL CHILDREN

The scientists: Alisha M. Crawley, et al. in Journal of Educational Psychology 91.4, 1999

The show: Blue's Clues

The conditions: Groups of kids watched an episode or Blue's Clues one time, or five times over five days.

The result: The more the kids watched the episode, the more they interacted with it and understood it.

The oversimplified takeaway: Go ahead, watch that Blue's Clues over and over.

8. THE TELEVISION SITUATION COMEDY AND CHILDREN'S PROSOCIAL BEHAVIOR

The scientists: Lawrence Rosenkoetter in Journal of Applied Social Psychology 29.5, 1999

The shows: The Cosby Show and Full House

The conditions: Kids watched an episode of The Cosby Show with a bunch of moral lessons. In another experiment, kids watched an episode of Full House with one overarching moral lesson.

The result: Even 1st graders "get" the moral lessons of an adult sitcom like The Cosby Show. It was a little harder for them to get the one big lesson in the Full House episode. In general, kids who watch prosocial sitcoms have more prosocial behavior, especially if they understand them.

The oversimplified takeaway: If they can work it out on a half hour TV show, maybe your kids can too.

9. AN ASSESSMENT OF OBESE AND NON OBESE GIRLS' METABOLIC RATE DURING TELEVISION VIEWING, READING, AND RESTING

The scientists: Theodore Cooper, et al. in Eating Behaviors 7.2, 2006

The shows: Full House and Wonder Years

The conditions: One group watched an "active" show (an episode of Full House). One group watched a "passive" show (Wonder Years). Other conditions were resting without TV and reading a story.

The result: No significant difference in metabolic rate between conditions. "Metabolic rate alone cannot account for the consistently observed relationship between television viewing and obesity."

The oversimplified takeaway: Sorry, watching Full House won't help you burn calories.

 
Arika Okrent is editor-at-large at TheWeek.com and a frequent contributor to Mental Floss. She is the author of In the Land of Invented Languages, a history of the attempt to build a better language. She holds a doctorate in linguistics and a first-level certification in Klingon.

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