In 2010, the Federal Reserve barred banks from enrolling customers in overdraft programs without their permission. Under those programs, banks agreed to cover ATM withdrawals and debit-card purchases even when funds were dry, but in return charged customers a fee, leading to a downward spiral of negative account balances, late-night freak-outs, and low self-esteem.

A year ago, the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (CFPB) announced plans to study these programs, in a bid to determine if the new rules are adequately protecting customers. Well, the results are in: Banks are still profiting handsomely from overdraft charges, and a smaller number of customers — those who opt into the programs — are the ones paying.

The problem is that banks are allegedly making it harder for customers to avoid the fees.

CFPB Director Richard Cordray stopped short of calling for a ban of such fees. But he said, "Our findings raise concerns about the number of consumers who are incurring heavy overdraft fees or account closures, and the wide variations across institutions indicate that certain practices and procedures merit further analysis."

"Consumers need to be able to anticipate and avoid unnecessary fees on their checking accounts. But we are concerned that overdraft programs at some banks may be increasing consumer costs," he continued. "What is often marketed as overdraft protection may actually be putting consumers at greater risk of harm."

The report, based on confidential data provided by banks, did not specify the banks in question. Furthermore, it did not say how many banks were surveyed, only that the data represented more than half of all deposit accounts. Here are some of the stats:

Percentage of bank accounts that experienced at least one overdraft or insufficient-funds charge in 2011

Percentage of overdraft fees incurred by "heavy overdrafters," or those tallying more than 10 charges a year

Average overdraft fee paid by bank accounts with one or more overdraft charges in 2011

Percentage of overdraft fees collected as an extra penalty when customers didn't have the funds to bring the account back to zero

Percentage of checking accounts banks involuntarily closed in 2011, usually due to negative balance

Percentage of institutions with assets of $38 billion or more that use overdraft programs

Percentage of banks with assets less than $1 billion that have overdraft programs

Percentage of community banks that offer overdraft programs

$19.9 billion
Overdraft fees banks earned in 1990

$32 billion
Overdraft fees banks earned in 2012

Average overdraft fee in 1998

Average overdraft fee in 2012