Italian mothers who give birth between now and the end of next year will win a cash prize of more than $1,000. Italy has one of the lowest birth rates in the world, at 1.2 children per woman. In an effort to boost that rate, the government said this week it will pay women who already have at least one child to have another. A first child already guarantees a state payout. Some opposition leaders said the program was racist, since only Italian womennot immigrantsqualify for the child bonus.