Russia has passed new laws making it illegal for anyone with a "sex disorder" to drive, meaning transsexual and transgender people will no longer be allowed to hold a licence.
The bill also lists fetishism, exhibitionism and voyeurism as "mental disorders" which will disbar people from driving. Compulsive theft and "pathological" gambling are also classed as prohibited medical disorders.
The government says that it is tightening medical controls in a bid to bring down traffic accidents. Russia's Professional Drivers Union said in a press release that it supported the move. "We have too many deaths on the road, and I believe toughening medical requirements for applicants is fully justified," said Alexander Kotov, the union's head.
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However, some psychologists say that the definition of mental disorder is too broad. Valery Evtushenko at the Russian Psychiatric Association told the BBC that the move could serve to deter some people from seeking psychological support for fear that they might be barred from driving.
The Association of Russian Lawyers for Human Rights said that the new law was "discriminatory" and called for international human rights organisations to lend their weight to a campaign to have the legislation overturned.
Mikhail Strakhov, a Russian psychiatric expert, said that the definition of mental disorder was now too restrictive and listed behaviours and preferences that did not affect a person's ability to drive.
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