Be noisy. Bear attacks on humans are uncommon. To keep them rare, make noise when hiking in bear territory. “Some people like to hike with a ‘bear bell’ on their walking sticks.” Talk loudly, too. “Bears are afraid of you,” so use that fear to reduce the chance that one will attack out of surprise.
Stand tall. If a bear gets close, don’t run—“that stimulates the animals’ predatory response.” Instead stand your ground and try to look large by raising your arms overhead. Talk to the bear, so it recognizes that you’re human.
Protect your face. Always carry a pepper-based bear spray. If empty-handed, fight back aggressively against a black bear. In a grizzly attack, “drop to the ground and play dead.” Since bears go for the head and face first, clasp your hands behind your neck and cover up with your forearms and elbows.